RUGENDAS. (Johann Moritz) HABITANTE DE GOYAS. Quadro a óleo pintado sobre madeira.
Clique nas imagens para aumentar.
GOUDAR. (Ange) RÉLATION HISTORIQUE DU TREMBLEMENT DE TERRE
survenu à Lisbonne le premier Novembre 1755. Avec un détail contenant la perte en Hommes, Eglises, Convens, Plais, Maisons, Diamans, Meubles, Marchandises, &c. PRÉCÉDÉE D’UN DISCOURS Politique sur les avantajes que le Portugal pourroit retirer de son malheur. Dans lequel L’Auteur développe les moyens que l’Angleterre avoit mis jusques-lá en usage pour ruiner cette Monarchie. A LA HAYE, Chez Philanthrope, à la Vérité. M. DCC. LVI. .
In 4º (16,5x9 cm) com x, 216 pags.
Encadernação da época inteira de pele com ferros a ouro na lombada por casas fechadas. Corte folhas carminado. Guardas em papel decorativo da época.
Exemplar com títulos de posse manuscritos em francês na folha de guarda; e com leves machas de manuseamento em algumas páginas.
O livro descreve a situação política, social e económica até à pàgina 180; apresentando-se o capitulo com a Relação Histórica do Terramoto nas últimas 35 páginas, nas quais se apresentam as listas com as ruas, igrejas, palácios e outros monumentos destruídos.
Obra rara e valiosa escrita por um estrangeiro que residiu em Lisboa e conheceu bem Portugal.
Publicado sem o nome do autor.
According to Ana Cristina Araújo, The Lisbon Earthquake of 1755: Public Distress and Political Propaganda, University of Coimbra:
«After the Lisbon earthquake, Portugal was in no condition to take either the English or French side […] the main European powers offered material aid, both in kind and money, and made available other kinds of help, sending specialists and observers to Lisbon (Araújo 2005). The French Court enjoyed the services of the publicist, spy and adventurer, Ange Goudar (Hauc 2004). He came to Portugal in July 1751 – and not 1752, as he claimed in the preface to his book about the earthquake – on a secret mission to advise the Secretary of Foreign Affairs and War, Sebastião José de Carvalho e Melo. […] Originally, the book, printed in the Hague, bore no reference to either its author or printer. The immediate success of the work is evidenced by the four editions printed in 1756 alone, all in French. The third edition, falsely attributed to a Lisbon print shop, bears a significant change to its title (Barreto 1982: 415). The Discours politique now took pride of place, and preceded the distant, distorted and error-strewn report of the damage caused by the quake. For its part, the text was also revised so as to constitute a violent attack on the Portuguese Inquisition. In the work, Goudar says that Portugal, a victim of its ally’s covetousness, had been allowing its Brazilian gold to be drained off by Great Britain, because of its balance of trade deficit. He estimates the losses of British firms based in Lisbon at the time of the earthquake at 64 million cruzados. In addition to that excessive sum there were the incalculable losses caused by the temporary interruption of regular trade with Britain. He blames the English for Portugal’s industrial backwardness, and suggests that the catastrophe represented a unique opportunity for a radical change in Portugal’s alliances and economic policy. This change in Portugal’s foreign policy would take place with France’s help, which would take the hand of this Iberian nation and help its trade and industry to re-emerge from the ashes. Guided by such concerns, Goudar’s text became a veritable political 'propaganda weapon' on the eve of the Seven Years’ War. Ostensibly backing the interests of France and the continental countries that supported its colonial intentions against England, the Discours politique showed that Portugal still played a pivotal role on Europe’s diplomatic chessboard, and that one possible consequence of the quake could be an end to the favouritism shown towards Britain in Portugal’s Atlantic trade. […]. As demand for information about the European conflict grew, so did interest in Goudar’s book. From its very first edition, it was owned, read and commented on in many European countries, including Portugal, and in Brazil, as is clear from the Edict of 8 October 1756 issued by the General Council of the Holy Office, which severely condemned its errors, insults and political falsehoods. Later, in August 1777, it would again be censured and banned by the Royal Board of Censors, indicating the continued demand for the work, which aroused the Portuguese public’s curiosity until at least the time of the French invasions (1807-1814). Various editions and handwritten copies of the book circulated clandestinely in Portugal and its overseas territories. Meanwhile, when Spain changed its foreign policy of neutrality and turned against England, allying itself with France, Goudar’s work was published in Spanish (Molina Córton 2003)».
According to Jean-Marc Rohrbasser:
« The evaluated number of victims of the 1755 earthquake in Lisbon varies according to sources and periods. From a second reading of the Relation of the event published by Ange Goudar [1720 - 1791] in 1756, Jean-Marc Rohrbasser tries to supply some answers to certain questions concerning the material aspects of the disaster and its consequences: what was the economic situation of Portugal in 1755? What was the extent of damage to property and can we make an accurate approximation of the number of victims in Lisbon? From concrete estimations which will be discussed here based on the indications which we have today, Goudar suggests a thesis in opposition to the more classic philosophico-theological interpretations: the disaster, far from being a divine punishment and raising again the question of radical evil, is rather a good thing, an opportunity for revival for the country which it struck».
Segundo Jean-Marc de Rohrbasser : « Le tremblement de terre de Lisbonne : un mal pour un bien ?.», Annales de démographie historique 2/2010 (n° 120) , p. 199-216: « Le nombre estimé des victimes du tremblement de terre de 1755 à Lisbonne varie beaucoup en fonction des sources et de l’époque. À partir d’une relecture de la Relation de l’événement publiée par Ange Goudar [1720 - 1791] en 1756, le article Jean-Marc de Rohrbasser tente de fournir quelques éléments de réponse à certaines questions touchant aux aspects matériels de la catastrophe et de ses conséquences : quelle était la situation économique du Portugal en 1755 ? Quelle fut l’étendue des dégâts matériels et peut-on évaluer avec une bonne approximation le nombre des victimes à Lisbonne ? À partir d’estimations concrètes qui seront ici discutées en fonction des indications dont nous disposons aujourd’hui, Goudar soutient une thèse contraire aux interprétations philosophico-théologiques plus classiques : la catastrophe, loin d’être une punition divine et de reposer la question du mal radical, est plutôt un bien, une occasion de renouveau pour le pays qu’elle a frappé.
Barbier (1879), 4, 232.
Duarte de Sousa 1, 395
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